Es suficiente. It is supposed to be the crucial but also imaginary organ of this sculpture of Rodin. As physical, tangible reality, the brain is the most sophisticated and dazzling object of the known universe. I have one of those inside me. And you, by the very fact that you are reading these words, have another one. Another one of such amazing living diamonds. Do we own such a jewel or are we owned by it? The purpose of this philosophical dictionary is not to give meanings to words, is not to confine their semantics, but to calibrate their spell ability: their strength to configure contents of consciousness.
One first step: Who or what wants to study, to see, to consider, to measure, to modelize, etc. Who or what wants to create in its own brain an image, an idea, an atlas, of its own brain? Can the brain be object and subject of knowledge at the same time? It can be stated as follows: the brain, as a thing between things, is part of the world like trees or snails or cars or stars. Seen like this, as a concrete cut of the visual impact of the world, it appears as something three-dimensional, tiny, vulnerable, and apparently created, configured and also pitiless submitted by the laws of Nature.
The theories of a neurophysiologist if we accept and follow those same theories are phenomena within the electrical and viscous inner-cosmos of their own galaxies of neurones. That inner-cosmos would be the habitat of the models of brain of a neurophysiologist.
It could be said, from the current scientistic materialism, that the brain is one of the things that can be contemplated inside the brain if the brain works properly inside that magic box can also happen an Autumn breeze that bristles the skin of memory. And from that materialism it can also be said that we will be more cognizant of the brain the closer we get to a certain neuronal conexions-path, to a certain form, or dance if you want, in the matter of our brain: the precise one that propitiates a suitable representation of what is the brain in itself.
The great intellectual ecstasy of Philosophy begins. But, what do those models say? I will focus on the human brain. As far as I know, it is said that the brain is a concrete part of the human body, an organ which is considered the centre of the nervous system. I have read that the neurones can cooperate in societies of millions of members and that it is still uncovered the mystery of the way that cooperation really works.
It is also said that the brain tissue produces energy, electricity indeed like a small, organic nuclear power station , which, if many neurones work together, can be powerful enough to get out of the skull the box of the brain and be measured outside. Actually, some current models of neuroscience use that comparison to improve their insight of the brain. And they do it on the grounds that the brain is a centre of perception and processing of data. It is also said that learning and memory are core activities of the brain. Santiago Ramon y Cajal might have explain such capacities arguing that they were just changes in the synaptic connexions between neurones.
Thousands of millions of neurones capable, willing to connect among each other… What might occur if that total connexion takes place? The brain that huge mystery being completely conscious of itself? Philosophy, viewed from the current models of neurophysiology, could be described as a bomb of conscious thoughts set inside those galaxies of neurones in order to trigger its final, ecstatic connexion: the infinite synaptic plasticity.
The scientific models of reality I have just shown are the framework of some amazing projects that I would like to mention and to thank too :. Our civilization is now fascinated with the human brains: with those complex pieces of organized matter. Inside those cosmic jewels might be the key of everything. The paradox of the brain. The philosophical system of Schopenhauer overcomes such paradox placing the physical brain as part of the created world, as a kind of tool used by our deepest I in order to contemplate our own creation. Urbana IL: University of Illinois, The brain: Maturana says the frog can not see all the animals it does not see those that are especially large and slow.
The activity of the brain is the result of the demands of the living system that nourishes it. Reality is made by living systems. Searle does focus its criticism on digital computers. But, what kind of machines are still to be created? Schopenhauer already considered the brain as our most sophisticated artificial creation. That error was to believe that the most refined operations of the mind are separated from the structure and functioning of the biological organism. The brain and the rest of the body constitute an inseparable organism composed of biochemical and neural regulatory circuits that relate to the environment as a whole, and mental activity arises from that interaction.
Do we think with all that? From the groove of his own burqa, and always through the kaleidoscopic lens of scientist materialism, Dawkins states that what we see of the real world is not the real world, but a model of the real world, regulated and adjusted by sense data a model that is constructed in such a way that it is useful to deal with the real world. According to that theory we could ask: Is not that very theory the model of reality that Richard Dawkins exposes just something useful that his brain his body needs in order to deal with the real world?
So: Do brains reflect reality or create it? Now I will try to convey what seem to be my own thoughts the secretions of my own brain about the mystery of the brain:. Nothing else. I see no brain beyond a certain mental software if we use the metaphor of Hilary Putnam. It is said that from the last third of the twentieth century the philosophy of the mind is acquiring a privileged place in what we call philosophical reflection. But the leading idelogy nowadays is the one which asserts the material dimension of the brain. But every physical object, according to current Physics M-Theory , is supposed to have eleven dimensions, not only three.
Impossible to see. Even impossible to imagine. And I can also send it calm, silence, even love… That is something I do almost everyday. The question is: From where do I feel my own brain? Where really am I? That beautiful ballerina is part of a mighty dream: the dream of scientific materialism, which offers fabulous worlds, and fabulous expectations. Es prodigioso que eso ocurra. Porque finalmente es incapaz de abarcar lo que hay en palabra alguna, en sistema alguno.
La experiencia total. De pronto me doy cuenta, algo asustado y aturdido, de que esa no es exactamente mi casa. Se lo digo a mi hermano. Me decido a hacer la prueba que siempre me funciona: levanto los brazos y me dispongo a volar. No lo hago.
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Me es igual. No me quiero distraer. Llego a una casa grande en cuyo tejado hay grandes cristaleras. Ellos me descubren.
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Al resto les doy igual. Entonces se me ocurre animarlos a jugar conmigo. Siento angustia. Quiero despertar. Es un mensaje de voz. En el mensaje ella se lamenta de que yo no devolviera sus llamadas. Su voz es angustiosa. El despierto. Y ponerse a su servicio: aumentar sus hechizos Nietzsche. Pero no se puede vivir sin ellas. Porque vivir es estar hechizado. Die Traumdeutung. Unos mundos nutriendo a otros. Dios se aprieta pero no se ahoga. Fue una experiencia incomunicable ahora. Todo era demasiado calmado. Demasiado maravilloso.
O algo relacionado con la muerte. Y letal. Y del mundo. De todos los mundos posibles. Y es que tienen una fuerza y una belleza descomunales:. We dream. The very fact that this happens is simply prodigious. The philosopher never gets used to the prodigious: never gets used to what seems to be plain reality.
Which are the limits, and the exact contents, of life? How much do we experience, do we live, within a life, if we include our dreams inside it? How to rank the different worlds dreams in which we enter and leave within a lifetime? Where am I now exposing these questions? Inside a dream? Inside a life? Who writes now? Who reads? I think a dream is something big. Just because it is life. Can we -as Buddhists claim- awaken once, and completely?
On the night of May 24, , I had a similar dream. Also a lucid one. I bring it now here transformed into words:. I am in a house that is supposed to be mine. There are many people inside it and also in the garden. Among those people are my closest relatives. Suddenly I realize, frightened and dazed, that that is not exactly my house. And I begin to suspect that I am dreaming, so I tell it to my brother. He does not believe me.
I try to convince him, and also some other people who I do not remember now, that we all are in a dream: in a fake reality. So I decide to do the test that always works for me in such oneiric situations: I raise my arms, ready to fly, willing to fly. And, immediately, I do hover some meters above the ground, above the people. That makes me aware that I have an enormous power to configure that reality: that I can do with it almost anything I want.
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But I also remember, while flying, that I must remain calm and focused so as not to lose my power, my lucidity. I fly towards the highest branches of gigantic trees. I stop, almost in meditation, so as to contemplate in detail the prodigy of that oneiric-vegetable matter. Before that unique spectacle, that unique masterpiece, I feel a truly glorious aesthetic-metaphysical emotion: I am contemplating the matter of dreams and one of its possible configurations. Then I see a sign with a phone number.
I wonder what would happen if I called that number. I do not do it. Actually, I do not want to be distracted, to lose my power, my distance, my immunity, inside that dream. What really interests me now is the pure contemplation of the matter surrounding me, hosting me. I keep flying towards I do not know where. I arrive at a huge building with large windows on its roof. Through those windows I can see children sleeping inside a bedroom. They wake up and discover me. I do not know what to say. I tell them that I am an angel, that they should not be afraid, that I am there to take care of them, so that they have a precious life.
One of chikdren tells me that he already knows who I am because he has seen me in a movie. I decide to ask them to play with me. Suddenly, I feel powerful love-emotions in my heart and I lose some concentration and control. I feel like I have to urgently get out of there, out of that fake reality, but not flying, because I am aware I have already lost the power to fly.
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I run down a large staircase, like the ones of the old luxury buildings in Berlin. I feel anguish. I want to wake up. I am scared…. De Wikipedia, la enciclopedia libre. Marco Aurelio, Meditaciones , IV. Gruen, , Studies in Greek culture and Roman policy , p. Fuente citada en en:Alcaeus and Philiscus. Archivado desde el original el 21 de junio de Consultado el 29 de julio de This way of understanding indian identity, moreover, is the basis to justify who is entitled to the cultural rights that are compatible with liberalism. However, this description of indian identity collides with the reality of a great number of contemporary indians.
The life of an important part of these individuals and groups is closely linked to urban contexts that are outside their ancestral territories. Contemporary indians are in great part urban indians that are part of the market economy. Yet, multicultural liberalism, its descriptive and normative categories, does not have the capacity to recognize and accommodate them properly to the polity. Keywords: Multiculturalism; Liberalism; Indians; Identity. This city named for angels appears naked and stripped of anything resembling the shaking of turtle shells, the songs of human voices on a summer night outside Okmulgee.
Yet, it's perpetually summer here, and beautiful. The shimmer of gods is easier to perceive at sunrise or dusk, when those who remember us here in the illusion of the marketplace turn toward the changing of the sun and say our names. We matter to somebody,We must matter to the strange god who imagines us as we revolve together in the dark sky on the path to the Milky Way.
We can't easily see that starry road from the perspective of the crossing of boulevards, can't hear it in the whine of civilization or taste the minerals of planets in hamburgers. But we can buy a map here of the stars' homes, dial a tone for dangerous love, choose from several brands of water, or a hiss of oxygen for gentle rejuvenation.
Everyone knows you can't buy love but you can still sell your soul for less than a song, to a stranger who will sell it to someone else for a profit until you're owned by a company of strangers in the city of the strange and getting stranger. I'd rather understand how to sing from a crow who was never good at singing or much of anything but finding gold in the trash of humans. So what are we doing here I ask the crow parading on the ledge of falling that hangs over this precarious city? Crow just laughs and says wait, wait and see and I am waiting and not seeing anything, not just yet.
But like crow I collect the shine of anything beautiful I can find" 2. Es en estos espacios donde su cultura se encuentra enraizada. Las preguntas que se hacen los protagonistas de estas narraciones son existenciales. Tienen que ver con el sentido y valor que tiene su proyecto de buen vivir y, por tanto, con el sentido y valor de su identidad individual.
En Denver habitan Claro, el contexto en el que viven los Nukak Maku puede variar.
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Sin embargo, este sigue siendo el contexto dentro del cual los miembros de esta comunidad construyen y reconstruyen su identidad. En el primer caso, la cultura es un recurso necesario para que el sujeto pueda construir su identidad individual. Es un bien necesario para que cada uno pueda escoger y transformar su proyecto de buen vivir.
En la ciudad, las personas que tradicionalmente han vivido en contextos rurales, pierden los referentes que explican y dan valor a sus vidas. El primero es el espacio de la moral; la esfera en donde los individuos articulan, transforman e intentan materializar sus proyectos de buen vivir. El liberalismo multicultural responde al liberalismo procedimental con dos argumentos.