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An African child whose education and nourishment you sponsor receives your letter. Your divorce becomes final. Retinoids begin beneficially affecting the quality of your skin. You finish healing from your dental implant procedure. A hen begins laying eggs. A medical debt is sent to collection. Plastic photodegrades. The period for cashing in EE savings bonds begins. Epilepsy becomes intractable. A genetically modified food product passes governmental safety tests and appears in stores nationwide. We are difficult to obtain and expensive to ship.

The real bonus to a shipping container is the new green phrase adaptive reuse. Our trade deficit with the rest of the world is causing containers like me to pile up. It takes muscle to fillet the bluefish with an old kitchen knife and the bluefish feels nothing. The cotton fibers of a t-shirt drink the indigo except in spectral rings where the cloth is bound with rubber bands and will not dye.

Dipped in navy, this day, and the deck planks gray with dots of red from the bluefish blood. Clams from the pond in an orange metal bowl. Walking after work, the words recede, only codes of movement, stepping aside and passing, and being passed. A backdrop for the staging of itself. Yellow coldness, puddles in the mud.

The brush of winter waiting for the sky to dry. Sunrise and sea smoke curling off the water. Eight am the cannon blast, its echo congruent with clouds escaping from the cooling towers. Last night we saw the rings of Saturn, fused by distance into one wide white band circling the star. A tiny icon like a lunula, drawn near to earth. And soon the harbor frozen, the tide a feathered surface, buoys bound and bells held fast.

Channels cut by coast guard for the ferries thick with birds. This morning when I woke I felt alive, a feeling slow and sure as snowdrops. It is now advancing toward summer apace, and we seem to be reserved to taste its sweetness, but to perform what great deeds? Do we detect the reason why we also did not die? From Fair Sun by Susan Barba. Copyright c by Susan Barba. Reprinted by permission of David R.

Godine, Publisher. Only the moon over Soldier's Field Road sees us depart, quiet until the sun apocalyptic above the hospital jars us into words at river's bend, electric pink feedback feathering the water, mercury rising. Last time I saw the sunrise I gave birth. Only the fittest they've said should run and you're among them. Human technicolor snakes and schoolbuses perambulate the park and idly limber in preparation to go west while in the garden an old man bends his knees and pushes air with just his hands, slow as spring. The swan boats out of hibernation sway, chained to the dock, and a gray-skirted sneakered lady speedwalks through it all.

One day I'll wake this early of my own accord and imagine where I'll go and meet me there. Little it matters, drunk as we are, when the grape-red seep overtakes the water— so sweet, so full to the brim, the passed bottle, our hearts, our shoes sloshing as we dance.

Paper birds my sisters fold with their certain fingers, sharpening beaks, creasing and stretching each wing to the position of flight: hung with string, they stir with a puff of laughter. Should I grieve my solitude? Imagine my body like a rising crescent, its singular thought a clean, bright arc. The gathered flowers lift their fiery faces. Even the music turns deep garnet like the backs of our tongues, and we sing.

Imagine the curve of my body asleep beside another. Edges draw in—exhalations in the silk night air— a silver oxbow, contained. Children refuse to be tired, twirling, cheeks like poppies— in their wake, birds flutter, flames flicker. That the first miracle should be one of abundance, overflow, glasses filled and filled—yes, open wide the door, call in the outside stranger.

Wind here. Something to make us quiver. Turn wine into water and drink it. Look up from the road-killed hawk to its mirror, circling. Add buzzard breath, worm casting, cicada skin. Sing the doxology backward. Collect sap weeping from ice-broke boughs— turn water into sugar and drink it. Just add snake skin, starfish arm, dung beetle. Cut the nets, throw back the fish. Go back to Galilee. Bottle the fog from the valley bottom before it lifts.

Drink it. Follow the honey bee to the body of the lion. Forgive, forgive, forgive. It started as a sporadic sweep, incessant but hushed, a tune for dirges, a song for joyful incantations in the threats of night, a constant presence with multiple meanings, spurting hopeful. Then, metamorphic brilliance—transformation. Rather, intermittent exclamations of thunder rending prayerful skies prevailed in choral volubility, lent voice to the large, globose fragments in masterful.

In retreat, many cowered, contemplating apocalypse. Stanchions loosened, leaves flew, and dogs barked at the threat of drowning promise. But the brothers would eclipse. Within the belly of the storm, two bodies moved their loin-clad silhouetted masses of flesh through the fiery watery sheets and, when thunder shoved. Though it was not the optical tension that swooned the storm, but the choreographic delight of their spirit beings in physical expression, the illuminating ovation of the light.

From right. When the parched rain puked its last watery bead and bequeathed its remnant of wetness in little spits on the bodies of the brothers, the local land. Understand that males, for all their power and all their mind and all their wit, are awash in awe. It laps at their ankles like waves breaking on a beach. Yes, you can count on them to protect you when bats wake you in the night and you scream and scream and scream. But it is best to count on yourself, even in the matter of bats. Hitting them with a broom and carrying them out to the garden with their broken wings and stunned, high pitched bleating, is a nasty business.

But somebody has to do it. Don't let him be the only one to learn that the bat that fills the echoing halls of your nightmares barely fills the palm of your hand. Kildare The centuries between and B t saw a period of development and innovation, and from about rc climatic deterioration together with other f'actors may have been responsible for widespread change. It rnay also have been a time of insecurity as small settlements of the period that have been fbund, containing circular houses, are often sitedon small islands, promontories or lake-edges, enclosed bv banks, walls or palisades.

The dead were crelnated and sometimes placed in undecorated urns, often buried at the centre of small ring ditches. In some places burials are also found without urns, in grayes called boulder burials structures nade - of boulders in the rnanner of small megalithic tombs. Ritual Stone Circles and Nig;nments r. A carved u'ooden figure rnade of yeu.

Cavan, provides further insig'ht into the religious practices of the time. The figure u'as almost certainly an idol of a qpe that u,. A second irnportant phase of Bronze Age gold working occurs at this time and the output of the Middle Bronze Age goldsmiths was impressive. As in the earlier phase ornaments lr,'ere produced from sheet gold, but the use of gold bars, either plain or w-ith hammered flanges, constitLrted an important addition to the repertoire of the goldsmiths. New techniques u'ere deployed to produce multifaceted ornaments by nvisting thin strips of gold sheet and gold bars into an array of neck ornaments, ear- rings, bracelets, armlets and rings used as hair ornaments known as tress rings.

An unusual technique whereby gold wire of D-shaped cross-section was wound around a cylindrical leather core was employed to fashion a neck ornament found in a hoard at Derrinboy, Co. Gold objects such as torcs and ear-rings which were fashioned by twisting are otherwise plain, while sheet ornaments, such as armlets, are decorated generally with ribbed decoration formed by careful hammering and punching by means of the repouss6 technique.

More finely ribbed sheet objects such as bracelets and uess rings appear to have been decorated by chasing, a technique of working gold ornament from the front. In bronze working, the use of two-piece moulds of stone, and later of clay, allowed for significant improvements in the range and form of metal objects that could be made. A wide variety of bronze weapons and tools were manufactr-rred, some of which were extremely large. Spearheads of various forms were in use, as were axes of a tv,pe known as palstaves, and a range of smaller tools that have occasionally been found in hoards.

One such hoard of note, which would seem to have been the stock in trade of a metal-smirh, was found at Bishopsland, Co. Kildare, and it illustrates the range of bronze objects available during this period. Included are a variety of axes, chisels, a sickle, double- edged saw, anvil, vice, finger rings, bracelet, tweezers, flesh hook, a possible toilet RAPrBn alu Srnlnttuo, article resembling an ear pick and up to forty fragments of wire and miscellaneous Tr,t-rn'tm.

An important weapon of the period is the rapier which developed from the fuIiddle to Lrfier Bronze Age, shorter daggers of an earlier period. Although weak hafting may have marred its nc. The great skills of the bronze smiths are outstandingly illustrated in the rapier found near Lissan, Co. Derry cast in a two-piece stone mould and finished by hammering; a wooden handle was then secured in place by tvr. It is the longest rapier knov. In particular, the utmost control was required during the casting process to prevent differential cooling of the rnould, which would have cracked the blade.

Similar technical skills were required for the production of large basal-looped spearheads, some of which are of such a length that they m. Derry is the longest to have survived from Irelan d l]. It is socketed, with an elongated triangular blade, and loops are placed at the angles formed by dre socket and the flat base of the blade. Late Mesolithic, BC. Found on the surface ofa ploughed field the spearhead is long and slender, flat on each face with bevelled edges.

Its point is sharp and the butt is narrow and slighdy rounded. The rock was identified as baked hornfels of porcellanite texture, of great hardness which is unlikely to have been obtained in Co. Its elegant beauty elevates it to the category of an artwork and it must have been a prized, possession, perhaps denoting the rank of an important dignitary within a late Mesolithic hunting-band. Lacas , ; Woodman et al , Middle to Later Bronze Age, tc.

The rapier was found in a bog in the townland of Tirlll. The rapier may date between BC and for long has been regarded as the finest object of its class from Western Europe. It is of a class known as Group fI[ rapiers of which almost t]rree-quarters of the group have been found in Britain, the remaining exampies being Irish. The Lissan rapier has a trapezoidal butt in which one rivet survives.

The long elegant blade has a lozenge-shaped cross-section with bevelled edges. The spearhead with loops at the base of the blade found near Maghera, Co. Derry, is the second largest of its class to have been found in Ireland and it dates to between sc. The object is by no means cast as proficiendy as the rapier. Casting flaws near the base mean that part of the bevelled edge is absent and there is a hole in the socket while a section below the point is a cast-on repair. Wilde , AxE, Mrr,r-, Co.

Palaeolithic, 40 0, 0 0 0,00 0 nc. The Mell flake is a heary trtpezoidal flint flake with a width greater than its breadth. When striking produces a flint flake, a distinctive convex area known as a bulb of percussion is produced immediately below the point of impact, This feature is present on the Mell flake demonstrating that it was fashioned by human hands. It is not a tool but a piece of knapper's waste that is most closely comparable with the Iithic products of the Clactonian and Acheulian cultures of southern Britain.

These stone-working industries are associated with the activities of early hominids and the MeIl flake could date as early as , BC. It was probably fashioned on land tlat now forms the basin of the Irish Sea where an advancing ice sheet picked it up.

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When the ice retreated melt-water deposited it near the Irish coast in gravel. Mitcbell dt Situqkury , Neolirbic, 3 00 tc. I These beautifirlly polished objects from the river Shannon were among hundreds of artefacts acquired by the National Museum of Ireland during the s through the energetic efforts of Mr A. Killeen, an engineer with the Electricity Supply Board. Made in an axe factory in Co. Antrim, in the north easr of the island, the artefacts travelled a long distance before finding a watery end on the bed of the Shannon at an important crossing-place.

They were found in the course of dredging work associared with the construction of a hydroelectric power station. The axe has a pointed elliptical cross-secrion, a narrow rounded butt and a curved cutting edge. The c,urved cutting edge is at the wider end of the chisel, which has an wal cross-secrion tapering to a narrow circular bun. One of a small number of exotic imports probably from the Alpine region of northern Italy. It is unlikely to have reached Ireland in a single-stage journey and there may have been a long interval between the dme of its manufacture and its arrival in the Irish midlands.

The surface has a highly-polished marble finish and is of a motded green colour.

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The axe is flat and thin with a pointed butt broken in antiquiry. The Paslickstown axe is clearly a prestige object whose beauty and rarity would have set its owner apart ir starus and wealth. Smith , 69; Coonqt dy Mandal , 10t. Dennvlrlo BarrrrvrnNl, Co. Neolithic, i nc. The precise circirmstartces of discovery of the axes found at Lisnascreghog and near Ballynnena are unknown. The Lisnascre,ghog axe has a sharp cutting edge and may have functioned as a fine tool although it is more likely to have served a ritual function.

The Ballyrnena axe has a blunt edge and a hole by means of which it was worn as an amulet. The tiny Loughcrew axe has a fine cutting edge but its diminutive scale must surely mean that it served ritual purpose and the context of its having been found a in a Passage Tomb further underlines the point. The Loughcrew a-xe dates to between a:rd rc, while, the broader date range may be applied to the remaining axes.

Found in a bog at Kellysgrove, Co. As is the case with Neolithic arrowheads, javelin heads of the period may be leaf-shaped or lozenge-shaped. The Kellysgrove example is lozenge-shaped, the butt end being shorter than the end containing the tip, which is damaged. The finely serrated edges provide a contrast with the main surfaces, which are finely polished.

It seems likely that the point would have been employed on a relatively light shaft as a projectile rather than as a spear which could serve equally as a thrusting weapon. Javelin heads range in length up to a maximum of around 25 cm. Lucas ,; Collins , Neolithic, 3 3 ec. Meath, this is an object that shows a refinement of design, sophistication and techrricai ability of an exceptionally high order. It is made from pale grey flkrt with some brown-coloured patches. Of compact hammer-shape, with a roughly trapezoidal plan, there is a rylindrical perforation for the handle located towards the narrow end.

Nl six surfaces bear decoration in low relief carved with incredible finesse.

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The sides bear spiral designs that continue on to the upper and lower surfaces respectively to curve around the shaft hole. On the upper surface there is a c-shaped scroli that may represent the eyes of a human face with the shaft hole representing a gaping mouth. The ends each bear a series of interlocking elongated lozenges. No macehead with comparable decoration has been found elsewhere in Ireland although comparisons can be drawn with finds from northern and western Britain in particular.


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E Eogan dr Richatdson 1g82, ; Simpson ,t2. Neolithic, j 8 00 ac. Stone-working reached a very high standard, as shown by the perforated maceheads made of carefully selected stone from near Bushmills, Co. Both are of the so-called Orkney pestle qpe. A cylindrical perforation is set nearer the narrower end ofeach and both have dome-shaped ends and concave sides.

The Bushmills macehead is made from a mottled grey-green stone of considerabie hardness and the larger domed end is damaged, possibly by hammering. Knowles, Coll. Lucas , ; Simpson , The Lough Fea macehead was found at the bottom of a bog, probably in Doohatty townland. It is a finely-polished specimen made from a very hard, whitish, gneissose rock that is not found iocaily. Simpson , i7. ND or. Finds from Passage Tombs show that attractive coloured stone was traded over iong distances to be made into beads and pendants that may have possessed q.

Semi-precious stone such as jasper and serpentine as well as limestone and steatite was used to fashion the beads and pendants discovered in the Passage Tomb cemetery at Carrowkeel, Co. Sligo, and similar objects rnade from carnelian have been found elsewhere. Some of the Carrowkeel pendants are modelled on maceheads while others notched at one end represent phalli. The pattern of deposition of beads and pendants at Carrowkeel suggests that only a small number would be str-ung fol each wearer. Examination of beads and pendants from the Passage Tomb kaown as the Mound of the Hostages at Tara suggests that beads and pendants were strung alternately.

The largest Carrowkeel pendant illustrated is 3 cm in length. E; Macalister et al , 3i9; Gogan , ; Herity , Neolithic, 3 30a ac. During the excavation of a Passage it a phalius-shaped stone was found in a small Tomb cemetery depression outside the western tomb of the main mound at Knowth. Unlike a similar find from Newgrange, Co. Meath the Knowth object is decorated. Most of the body has a series of arched grooves, which terminate at a channel which runs down from the top to the bottom.

Like comparable decorated objects of bone or antler from Knowth and Fourknocks I, Co. Meath and more widespread plain objects with domed heads, the Knowdr phallus-shaped stone would have a ritual firnction associated with fertiliqy. The phalius-shaped pendants [], some of which have simiiar grooved decoration, are also clearly related. The emphasis on fertility was probably in order to stress social and family continuity in the face of the death of individuals. Neolithic, 3 t BC.

A decorated pottery vessel, a toggle of fossil wood and the worked long bone of an animal accompanied a male burial in a cist at the centre of a cairn excavated at Baunogenasraid, Co. Carlow The handmade ware is fairly fine although the protrusion of mica grits on the inner surface gives it a speckled appearance. The outer surface has been smoothed carefully and fired to a reddish-buff colour. The rim projects horizontally inwards and is decorated with bands of impressed decoration.

The entire body of the pot bears a field ofincised concentric decoration perhaps applied using a curved edge ofsome kind. Around fifty similar vessels are known and the Baunogenasraid vessel displays a highly individual decorative rreatment unparalleled on Irish Neolithic pottery. Rajlery , ; Herity , Neolithic, 38 5 00 ac.

Westmeath, the bag was made by coiling spirally long slivers of wood which are bound together by lighter grass-1ike material. The two sides were woven together along a seam. Long straws plaited together form the two handles.

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The handles have a totai length each of 20 cm and are 9 cm wide where they join the body of the bag. The Tirford bag is remarkably similar to a bag in the museum's collections acquired at the beginning of the last century in Australia. The Aboriginal bag : is decorated with a dyed whirligig design but it is not possible to tel1 if the liq,ford bag was originally coloured or patterned in any way. The Australian bag underlines the persistence of simple but effective technology over a broad geographical and chronological range.

Original D. Dr,T rrN. Neolithic, i ac. The exquisite workmanship of Neolithic artists working in a variety of media inciuding stone and pottery shows that they were a stylish and sophisticated people. The two shell necklaces found with two male skeletons at Knockmaree in the Phoenix Park, DubLin, show the inventiveness used to produce simple but attractive items of personal adornment using easily avaiiable natural materials. Each shell was ground against a stone to create a second opening in the shell-wall. The shells are those of the flat-topped or blunt winkle Littorina littoralzs , an inedible species that is found commonly around the coasts, their shells being washed up in thousands after storms.

When fresh, the sheils may be yellow, red, brown, green, purple and almost black but the Knockmaree shells have now faded to a dull brownish hue. It is clear from the way the shells are graded that they were selected carefully and it is likely that shells of different colours were chosen to produce a varied and pleasing effect. The Knockmaree grave also contained a barbell-shaped bone object, a flint knife and an animal bone. Although no pottery was present the burial is closely related to that from Baunogenasraid, Co.

Carlow []. Wilde , , Early Bronze Age, nc. The records of the Royal Irish Academy note that these objects were found in the bed of a tributary of the river Erne in the townland of Belville, Co. Cavan in Although unparalleled in the Irish record they can be regarded as amongst the earliest goid objects known from Ireland.


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  4. They are of sheet gold decorated with simple patterns of raised lines and dots. The longer object may have been an ornament for the head or forehead. W71,W72,W75,W76, W Arunstrong , 91; Eogan , This pair of gold discs was acquired bythe,Royal Irish A. Age, :rnany of which orcur aE rmrching pairs. AJthough their precise funetion is not knoNrh, the, pefforarions suggesr rhfi to be ausched to a bacEng material. The decoration of most is based theJa w'ere on t4 cerrtrallyplaced etoss-shaped motif with con. W ,W Moxileumr, Early Branze Age, ec. Armstrong 1 , 84; Cahill t 98 3, no.

    Early Bronze Age, c. This exeeptionally fine. Monaghan, but no detaiis of its discovery have been recrirded. Iis perftct shapo and brilliant qxei:ffion capture the e5strnce of the craft of goldsmithing as praetised in Ireland in the Early Blonze Age. The beating of the gold into the crescentic shape, which is thickened slightly at the edges, is a remarkable skill in itsell The decorative seheme relies on a sirnple patte'rn of hatched triangles and groups of lines' but t]1e ba.

    SA "IM Found under a rock, in , this is another very fine example ofthe exceptional expertise achieved by Ireland's early goldsmiths. The detailed layout arrd precise incision of the designs has been accomplished with considerable skill and finesse. The motifs used are a brilliant composition of hatched triangles, lozenges, criss-cross lines and zig-zags. The subde combination of form and decoration has resulted in a prestige ob;'ect which would have imbued the wearer with special power and s. W: Armsu,ong , t This fine lunula was found in the. A lunula is a crescentic collar made of sheet gold and is the most common object of gold in the Irish Early Bronze Agu.

    L setting out the decorative scheme the goldsmith'aimed to achieve a s ,rffnetrical pattern which compares close:ly in detail from one side to the other. This has been very skilfulIy realised using a set of geometrical motifs in which the blank spaces are also an integral part of the design. Unusually, this lunula shows evidence of having been decorated on two occasions. Close examination confirms that the first layout was erased and replaced by a scheme which is less expert in its execution.

    The crescentic shape has been skilfully bealen from a small bar or ingot. The lunula also shows evidence of having been folded at its widest point and then folded over several times. This feature and the evidence of redecoration suggest that the lunula may have been in use over a long period.

    Early Bronze Age, ac. The axe is a qpical example of a type called 'Derryniggan' of which more than are known, two-thirds ofthem decorated. Axes ofdris type generally have low cast flanges, stop ridges, thin rounded butts and widely-splayed blades. The Brockagh axe was found at a depth of twelve feet in a bog which also preserved its leather sheath and thong. The sheath is made lrom rawhide with the hair side placed on the inside and stitched up the front with a narrow leather thong. The axe is Hat'bison , no. Quite useless if one fell off, but very stylish.

    She used her knowledge of music to edit the Radio 3 live broadcasts to fit a smaller slot in the World Service transmission schedule. The broadcast box in the Albert Hall went with the job and as the 5. Brigid was generous with her time, very proud of the World Service, and welcomed many visitors from Sligo.

    Just as puzzled, the announcer turned to his script to announce the next programme. Sligo was important to Brigid throughout her life. Twice a year, at Christmas and for the summer holidays,. Brigid loved seeing Irishness seeping into her London-born children and would happily have lived in Sligo all the year. Rounding up the reluctant famers to attend rehearsals was a challenge. Brigid was intensely interested the history of Sligo and the role played by her family that spanned many centuries. In London, dancing was relegated to a hobby with weekly dance lessons in a studio in Covent Garden, but her love of music continued and grew to be an important and life-long interest.

    Brigid joined the Medici Choir in London and sang in two or three concerts a year in London along with performances in European capitals including Berlin and Rome. In the early 90s Brigid resigned from the BBC staff and together we set up an independent production company. Always drawn to Irish archaeology, we made programmes on the excavation of Carrowmore, the Valley of the Boyne,.

    Brigid and I were asked to record a documentary on location as firemen and a team of workmen continued to explore the crater left by the collapse of the World Trade Centre. The epicentre of the clean-up was the 18th century Church of St Paul, on the edge of the disaster area. We were hardly prepared for what we saw from that church on Wall Street: the railings of the churchyard were hung with tributes, flowers and pleas for news of those who had disappeared. Brigid had shown how strong she was in the face of uncertainty and danger in many parts of the world, but this became her greatest test as we both looked up at the blackened trees in the churchyard.

    Branches of the trees had snared objects from the collapsed trade centre when a tsunami of pulverised rubble hit lower Manhattan. Brigid, as usual remained calm and with her emotions under control. It was a testing time for both of us as we followed workmen into buildings on the edge of the site, scuffing through inches of debris and dust across a carpet of grit made up of crushed concrete mixed with some pulverised human remains.

    Brigid remained focused on the purpose of the programme — to work with museum officials who were trying to collect material evidence of the tragedy for future generations. Health and Safety was then invented along with form-filling and more careful vetting of projects. Brigid knew about mines from programmes we had made in Cambodia and Sri Lanka, but the main exercise, surviving capture and interrogation ending with a firing squad, was new to us. Tough guys in uniform stopped our land rover, accused us of spying, and escorted us to a rusting and abandoned WWII army base. Brigid was hooded and shouted at.

    Not Brigid. Relax everyone. One of our colleagues needed counselling. Brigid called for a cup of tea. She did not know the meaning of the word. We both needed a break in Sligo. Refreshed, we returned on the same flight to Dublin.

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    Going through security to board the London flight Brigid was called over and asked to empty her Barbour pockets. Then out came the two bullets that had showed up clearly on the luggage scanner. What have you been doing? Brigid suddenly remembered the interrogation in the snow in Surrey. The unlikely story tumbled out. The bullets had travelled undetected through four airports, but without our BBC identity passes we are on holiday Brigid explained the story about training for a hostile environment sounded a bit thin at Terminal 1 in Dublin.

    The Guard was thinking of taking us off the flight and phoning M15 when I found a stray letter in my brief case addressed to the Head of Archaeology, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Brigid handed over the bullets and promised not to do anything like that again, and, very relieved and chastened, we caught the flight. Brigid died from ovarian cancer in June Remembering Clare Walsh Heritage Group members were saddened to learn early in of the death of Clare Walsh, a longtime supporter of the annual Heritage Weekend lectures and regular contributor to The Corran Herald.

    Clare wrote no less than 15 articles over the years: one in issue number 22, one each year from number 29 to 38 and three in number The subject matter was wide — from Bianconi to the history of knitting. She took great note of local lore and of course wrote of her beloved Castlebaldwin. Although she had reached her mid 90s, Clare continue to attend lectures up to last year. Clare represented all that is best about the Ballymote Heritage weekends. She was full of enthusiasm and curiosity and took great pride in her native place. We will miss her contributions to discussions after lectures.

    Above all, we will miss her bright eyes and smiling face. Ar dheis De go raibh a h-anam dilis. He was educated at Maynooth, matriculated in September , and and was ordained in June He was subsequently appointed a curate in Collooney where he ministered for a number of years. Tradition has it that during that period it was brought to his attention that a young child who lived at Somerton, then part of the Perceval estate, suffered from a malady that defied all medical efforts to cure.

    Tradition has it that in return the Percevals gave a site in Bunninadden on which the present church was built in In Doddy was appointed parish priest of Bunninadden in which capacity he quickly got into difficulties, initially with the civil authorities by stoutly refusing to take an oath of supremacy, a necessary requirement for Parish Priests in the pre-Emancipation era, and also for officiating at a prohibited wedding.

    Both these events brought him into headlong collision with Patrick McNicholas, the then bishop of Achonry, with whom Doddy was non co-operative if not openly hostile. However the incumbent, strongly supported by a majority of his parishioners, refused to give way. Doddy subsequently departed from the area and life returned to normal in Bunninadden and surrounding areas.

    However, following his return in , after an absence of four years, old hostilities surfaced again. Despite the prohibition of Bishop McNicholas he claimed the parish, and with the help of friends and relations took forcible possession of the old chapel at Killavil. They had a number of the paraders summoned and others arrested but their efforts to restore order were counteracted by the underhand agency of a Brunswick family in Ballymote, who had taken Doddy under their special protection and seemed to tacitly sanction the violence of his followers.

    No information was provided on that occasion, but promises were made that any illegal threats in the future would be reported to the said magistrate. In a parting comment the Observer expressed the hope that Doddy would cease to be instrumental in continuing a system that had led to such infamous conduct. In the course of his evidence at the.

    He claimed ownership of a farm which his brother, Thomas, had attended to in his absence and collected the rents. They included some witty exchanges between Fr Doddy and Judge Blakeney: Judge: Have you been reinstated in your parish? Doddy: No, Sir. Judge: Why, your Reverence? Doddy: The oppression of my Bishop Judge: Unfortunately, Doctor, you are out of your dues since you were suspended? Doddy: Yes, I am. Doddy: Yes, and so are you, I believe. Judge: You ought to be a Bishop. Doddy: I may yet, perhaps. I have as good a right to be a Bishop as you have to be a Judge.

    On the conclusion of the evidence the case was dismissed. Bishop McNicholas later reinstated Fr Doddy after he had shown signs of reform. In his latter years he lived in the vicinity of Bunninadden where he died in March , aged 80 years. According to local tradition he lies at rest in an unmarked grave in Kilturra cemetery. His brother, Thomas, who had a leasehold of thirty acres in East Ballinvalley, or Roadstown, had predeceased him in and was survived by his wife, Anne. The photograph was taken in the castle where the court was located. A strange thing happened on the way to the dance: An encounter in Sligo between two military men Michael Farry.

    One of the fascinating discoveries I made while researching the history of the War of Independence period in Sligo for the recently-published Sligo: The Irish Revolution Four Courts Press, was that of a typewritten account, including some photographs, by an officer of the Bedfordshire and Hertfordshire Regiment covering the activities of the 1st Battalion of that regiment while stationed in Ireland.

    Dunnill provides a valuable insight into the activities, tactics and attitudes of the British forces during this period. C Company, comprising just over men, took over Sligo military barracks. In early each had a small, well armed, active service unit and they were able to engage in small scale activities which kept the enemy on their toes. These columns were flexible and were able to combine when necessary and call on Volunteers.

    A group of the Bedfordshire and Hertfordshire Regiment with a Lewis gun at Sligo military barracks c. Road-trenching, tree felling and destruction of bridges restricted the mobility of the Crown forces, and foiled the many large scale round-ups they conducted. Trains were regularly stopped, RIC and soldiers on board were disarmed and Belfast goods taken.

    In January an IRA party under Hunt overpowered and disarmed an RIC District Inspector and two constables at Kilfree station, and later the same day opened fire on train carriages occupied by a group of the Bedfordshire Regiment as a train left the same station. On May 6, Marren led a party of between thirty and forty IRA, armed with ten to fifteen rifles and various other firearms, which held up the Dublin to Sligo train. Two soldiers and five Auxiliaries were disarmed and dispatches taken.

    A company of. Hunt was held in Boyle military barracks. The Sligo to Dublin mailtrain is held up five miles northwest of Ballymote by about fifty armed and masked men who order all male passengers to get out of the train on to the permanent way. Everybody off the train! Everybody off the train, and hurry up! I then heard footsteps scrambling along the permanent way, and more shouts, so I got up and went to the corridor and looked out of the window.

    I found myself looking at the bank of a high cutting, over the top of which projected a varied assortment of rifle barrels. I decided to sit on in the carriage and see what happened, as there were not enough passengers on the train for one to mingle with the crowd and escape detection by that means. A few minutes later a youth with a Mauser rifle and two revolvers in a belt came along and ordered me off the train.

    As I was unarmed it seemed as if I must obey him. He had one finger hooked around the trigger guard of his Mauser, and uncertainty as to what that finger might do in the I therefore climbed down and noticed that the owners of the herein beforementioned rifles were standing up in a trench — probably a drainage trench — on the top of the cutting.

    On reaching the permanent way I hesitated as to the direction I should take, and was promptly told to put my hands up, to keep them up, and to walk to the rear of the train. There I was handed over to the man who appeared to me to be the leader of the raiding party. I was then searched, but as I had emptied my pockets before leaving Sligo nothing of any importance was found. The only article of military equipment which I possessed at the time was a swordfrog [a leather holder for a ceremonial sword].

    A small notebook which had been taken away from me unluckily contained an old visiting card of mine. I was asked if the name on the card was mine, and as my name was on the back of my collar I thought it best to agree. I was then asked what I was doing, and I replied that I was just going into Boyle for the afternoon. I was asked if I was travelling on duty, and replied in the negative, and that I was going in for a dance that evening. The possession of an ordinary firstclass railway ticket instead of a duty warrant seemed to decide the point that I was not on duty.

    I was then moved round to the other side of the train where the rest of the. They were asked whether I was an officer of theirs, who I was, what I did, and so on. From neither of them was a single word of any sort forthcoming. The leader of the raid now produced a notebook, looked at my visiting card, and then started to turn over the pages of his notebook to see if he had any record of my name therein. During this time I was able to take stock of the situation, and also of my chances of making a bolt for it in the event of their decision being unfavourable to me.

    As far as the latter was concerned, my chances were nil, for there were about fifty or sixty men employed on the raid. Both sides of the train had been picqueted, some were removing the mailbags, sentries were posted on the engine and on the brakevan. A number of others were visible on the horizon, with flags, watching the roads, etc, I imagined. Their arms seemed to consist largely of Winchester and Service rifles. Hardly any shotguns were visible. All kinds of revolvers were carried.

    In a few minutes my captor finished scanning the pages of his notebook, and wrote my name in it. He had now apparently made up his mind on some course of action; what this was I was unable to surmise. In less than five minutes he returned and started to chat with me. I noticed this because as he came up to me he pulled a cigar from his pocket and lit it before speaking to me. While he was talking to me the cigar went out, and when he went to light it again a moment or two later, he put the opposite end in his mouth, and was unconscious of the fact that he had done so.

    He took a look round to see if they were all aboard, and than climbed up himself and came to my carriage, where there were, besides myself, Sergt Willett, the driver, and our bodyguard. He then opened the conversation again by asking me if I knew who he was. Naturally, I replied in the negative, whereupon he volunteered the information that he was Charles Marron. I thought that a few soft words would do no harm, so I complimented him on the technical skill of the hold-up.

    This seemed to please him very much and on the strength of it he offered me a cigar. The train was now on the move again. Marron now asked me why so many English officers wanted to resign in when it was a question of coercing Ulster, but nobody had offered to resign now that the South was being coerced. I found the question rather a poser to answer on the spur of the moment, but suggested that resignations had been offered but not accepted. He then left the train, and I noticed a number of young women on the platform whom I suspected of receiving the arms of the raiders for safe custody.

    After this the train left Kilfree, and nothing more of any interest happened before reaching Boyle, our destination, where we arrived about an hour after the scheduled time. This may be an indication of the poor state of intelligence services on both sides. Grune was honest enough to admit fear while Marren checked his name against those in his notebook.

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    Grune would have been aware of killings elsewhere in the country, and that on 19 April the IRA had taken two policemen from a train at Ballisodare and shot them dead. He does indulge in a little fun at the expense of the IRA, his fear that a finger might suddenly slip or an IRA member might take a pot-shot at him. In fact his account shows a very organised, efficient military action with the train being held up, all on board searched, weapons taken, military identified, without any exchange of fire.

    Grune may not have been as calm as he claimed. And despite the cigar mistake, Marren showed no signs of fear; rather he had the confidence to engage the British officer in conversation on the way to Kilfree. Grune asked if he had any requests, and Hunt requested that a pane of glass be taken out of his cell window for ventilation purposes. He also asked to be provided with a.

    Both requests were granted. It mentioned in particular the 6 May train hold-up and the Keash ambush on 23 May, but not the 26 May incident. These men travelled on the train to a point between Kilfree and Boyle where they stopped the train and detrained. In their joint witness statement to the Bureau of Military History Thady McGowan and Tom Brehony included a short paragraph on the hold-up but gave the date as 29 June, As progressed there was no reduction in IRA activity in south Sligo and train hold-ups were recorded on 10, 14, 23 and 29 June, and 6 July. In response to the continued IRA activity in the area, a company of the Bedfordshire Regiment moved from Carrick-on-Shannon and were stationed in Ballymote towards the end of June The truce came into effect on 11 July At that stage the Bedfordshire Regiment had three officers and 97 other ranks stationed at Sligo, two officers and 53 other ranks at Ballymote and seventeen officers and other ranks at the headquarters at Boyle.

    Edmund Sidney Chawner Grune had a long military career and served with other units of the British Army as well as the Bedfordshires. He was born in Surrey in and so was 34 years of. He was wounded on two occasions and was mentioned in despatches. After his service in Ireland he was employed by the Palestine Gendarmerie He was promoted to the rank of Wing Commander. He died on 6 July His obituary especially mentioned his leadership qualities, his sense of humour and cheerful disposition.

    According to the census, Michael James Marren was then living with his parents Timothy and Catherine in the townland of Knocknaskeagh, Gurteen and was fifteen years of age. This would suggest he was born in and was 35 at the time of the train hold-up meeting, a year or two older than the British officer. He was educated at the local primary school and became an apprentice at a local carpentry and joinery works.

    He was elected to Sligo County Council in June His men regarded him as a fearless and fair leader who was not interested in inflicting what he considered as unnecessary violence. He was however a member of the court martial which sentenced the British soldier know as John Watt to death in Glean Hall in Mount Irwin. The local newspapers reported that as the funeral cortege left Sligo it was met by a lorry of British military.

    The officer in charge had his men dismount and stand to attention with arms reversed along the road. We have no idea who that officer was. It is very unlikely to have been Grune, but the soldiers were members of the Bedfordshire and Hertfordshire Regiment. Sources Capt. Daily Railway Situation. Beaches to swim, surf, sail, and ski Horse riding, tennis, golf, for you or me.

    Rock formations, geometrically designed, With mountain peaks aligned. Ogham writings on rocks intrigues, History fascinates, millennia old, Learning lasts to eternity, Where God placed me. Employment then was for the few So this is what we chose to do: Take the boat across the sea To earn a crust in a new country. Right through the foaming main The old boat ploughed The evening bright, the sky without a cloud. Farewell to homeland, a new life dawned A long adventure spawned. At last dry land was reached Long train pulled up, puffed, braked and screeched Dark night was falling as Landscapes new were calling.

    Helmeted policemen in dark uniform Suspiciously eyed us on train platform Tired and weary we took our seats Promptly settled and dozed asleep. Railway lines like tangled thread In ordered form before us spread The train at great high speed Ate up those tracks with rampant greed. For miles and miles the suburbs grew, And mile for mile this was my view: Tall chimney stacks, industrial estates, The backs of houses, blue Bangor slates.

    Here and there an old church steeple The Christian symbol for many people. By 6am we reached Euston station The train spilled out like Sunday congregation. Paperboys ran up and down Sensational news from London town Read All about it! Read All about it! Their never-ending mantra shouted. On walking out I see a church With two heavy suitcases there I lurch.

    I must not go within To do so then was Mortal Sin. Red double-decker buses snaked along And large black taxis followed on I joined the throngs of Lombard Street Invisible speck amongst those I meet. Those new beginnings were so exciting A host of opportunities inviting One cannot tell what the future holds Just live each day as life unfolds.

    There is no show greater or more captivating than the Olympic Games. History of the Olympics Baron Pierre de Coubertin of France realised his dream of reinventing the ancient Olympics in , when the first modern Olympic Games were held in Athens, Greece. He won the gold medal with a jump of He followed this achievement with a bronze medal in the long jump, and four years later a silver medal in the triple jump in Paris in The Olympics is held every four years in a different city.

    The reason for this is to increase awareness of the Olympics, and only five nations have participated at every Summer Olympic Games of the modern era. On the other hand, Vatican City is one sovereign state never to have competed in an Olympics. We are delighted to confirm that you have been allocated the London Olympic Games tickets you applied for.

    Ever since I was old enough to understand what the Olympic Games were about I had wanted to attend, and now I knew my dream was going to come true. Over one million fans applied for tickets to witness Bolt perform at the Olympics on 5 August I fell short of actual qualification as an athlete by tenths of a second for the Sydney Olympics in Getting tickets was the next best thing, especially considering the Olympics were on my door-step in London. I felt this was the opportunity of a lifetime, one that not many people get.

    Boarding the plane in Dublin was nothing short of destiny, fulfilling a life slong dream. I was privileged to be finally going to the Olympics. I will never forget the feeling as I walked into the Olympic stadium those nights. I felt like a kid on Christmas morning as I approached Olympic Park. I could see the lights of the stadium from the train as it approached Olympic park train station. The park and stadium were constructed with astonishing attention to detail.

    There is an Energy Centre in the park which details all the different stages in the construction of the It described the environmental impact of the site and how the power was provided. They used low carbon concrete and reduced steel in the construction. The Olympic Park was chosen for an area in east London which underwent a transformational renaissance.

    It is an amazing and inspirational field of study in itself, and one that fascinated me. There were two rounds of security checks, like airport security, run by the British army. All the attendants were more than friendly and welcoming, clearly a decision that had been taken by the London organising committee. I can only describe it as bright white flames in a huge golden bowel.

    It is the symbol for the Olympics and conjugates all sorts of emotions and images to everyone. The torch had one day outside the United Kingdom when it visited Dublin on 6 June The evening began with a welcoming message from Lord Sebastian Coe, the head of London There were huge screens at every corner of the stadium which showed spinetingling moments from previous Olympic Games.

    Events started at 5. From then on it was full steam ahead until the main event of the night. I was sitting beside a lovely elderly couple from England on my left and. The author at London an African couple to my right. The pressure on people these days with finance and work is difficult and a situation like this for them to escape was amazing.

    Usain Bolt Ever since Bolt won three gold medals at Beijing , the Jamaican sprinter has become as famous for his electrifying personality as for his superhuman speed. The energy in the stadium from the audience was gigantic. When Bolt appeared the place went hysterical. Everyone was captivated by him and his antics. I might add they were incredibly entertaining. It was hard not to be emotional after watching what had just happened. This is clearly what everyone wanted to see and everyone was on their feet screaming. The silence before the race was deafening and then the noise reached a crescendo as he crossed the finish line in a new Olympic record of 9.

    He delivered what was expected in extraordinary fashion under enormous pressure. The metre final was breath taking. Bolt teased the crowd, and held up the final by 5 minutes gesturing. It felt as though we were all looking at an Olympic athlete sent to us from the Olympic Greek gods.

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    Bolt had left his mark indelibly upon the minds of all there, and London had succeeded in its goal of achieving the most memorable and successful Olympics to date, impacting the social, political and educational fabrics of society. Life at the Olympics The buzz and excitement were evident everywhere. This privilege was extended to me on the grounds that I had Olympic Tickets. I met the metre champion Kirani James at a restaurant in the Village and he kindly signed my Olympic programme and stood for photos. I informed them that I had bought it earlier that day in the gift shop. They were very proud of the fact that a non-Jamaican was supporting them and gifted me their Olympic flag in gratitude.

    Everyone was so friendly and happy. Colour, creed or belief did not matter there, as everyone was part of the Olympic family and exchanged flags and tracksuits in gestures of friendship. The food was excellent in the Olympic park. There were restaurants with mile-long tables of buffets that catered for every taste and need in the world.

    The colour and array of food were astonishing. It matched all of the different flags and national tracksuits that were to be seen everywhere. The Orbit was a natural draw. This was a steel construction of modern art towering over the Olympic stadium. The idea behind it was an expression of masses of hands intertwined. It was a landmark point. Every one had their photo taken beneath it. At any one minute you would see or meet an Olympic champion past or present. Famous people were to be seen everywhere, and they all seemed approachable and welcoming.

    London London became the first city to have hosted the modern Olympic Games on three occasions. It was calculated that an audience of four billion people watched the Olympic Games of London I happened to meet Jonathan Edwards, the former triple jump Olympic champion, and he was extremely welcoming and hospitable. One thing I noticed from my visit in December to the week of the. However during the Olympics it was the direct opposite with everyone friendly and welcoming. I watched it from Westminster Bridge along the Thames river.

    Later we met up with Ciaran and Croinne McDonagh. Ciaran was the physical therapist for the Jamaican sprint team at London He was a world finalist at the long jump in Seville Once people realised we were Irish the only question on their lips was, did we know Katie Taylor? Katie Taylor was amazing and will live long in our memory.

    Everyone will remember where they were when Katie won gold. The English openly supported the Irish on that occasion. She was the darling of the games. Ireland rejoiced and the world celebrated. I will never forget the deafening roar when it was announced that Katie. Ireland had been waiting for twenty years since our last gold medal. Little wonder that she was awarded an additional prize as one of the outstanding female athletes of the Olympic Games at the closing ceremony.

    The memories I take away from London will last a lifetime. It was one of the best weeks of my life and a wonderful opportunity. Well done to London for an amazing Olympics, and I deeply thankful that I was lucky enough to have the opportunity to attend. Trailing upwards on stony paths Craggy lanes whose shoulder-high walls Hide the rocks declining to the cliffs. Sea-birds dive from crevassed cliffs Into the spuming green waters, While all around sun and wind Iridescence and shadow create. Pillars of stone, wrought by long-dead hands Stand sentinel on the rugged coast.

    Frail jewel-coloured flowers Bloom in nook and cranny, Visited by hoards of fragile butterflies Blue and orange and brown and gold. Ancient peace and monastic quiet Distil the essence of the poet. Now cattle, sheep and donkeys graze. Light, gas and phone ease The lot of hardy island people, In outboard-engined currachs they fish. By plane and boat the guests arrive A summer bumper crop, Till winter seals in and Returns the island to its people.

    Good information does not get recorded on time and much of what does get archived deserved to have been binned. However, it is often not until long after that you realise what questions you should have asked and what answers you should have archived. Research into what has been archived, be it manuscript or printed, can be a never-ending pursuit! You get out a book in a research library, perhaps NLI or SLLSA, and soon you need yet another publication that the first draws you to, but there you may have to wait!

    This piece is about what you can discover by keeping asking questions. Copious references and illustrations may be found in Dedicated to Sligo. Mention of the discovery circulated in Sligo town for a while and we included a photo of it in A Celebration of Sligo in , d but that drew not a whisper. Sometime later the Timoney household had a phonecall from JM Conlon who gave us great detail about the bottom part of the memorial, and soon afterwards he sent us a twelvepage small copybook manuscript version of the story as he knew it. There was no address on the signed manuscript and he had not given us a phone number!

    If only we had got his contact details we would not have spent over twenty years trying to track We went to Louth to see the bottom part of the memorial in February However, if we had gone to Braganstown more than six years ago they would not have know what we were talking about as it had not come to light by then; it was only discovered by workers in recent years. The correctly reassembled stone — it had been in three when found recently — is securely built into an inside wall of a building at Braganstown. The three framing stones that were found with the triangular top part have not been located.

    Some weeks later Peter Mulligan of the post. Fitz] Gerald, who was buried in the Monastery of Sligo with the aforesaid Donagh in the year , caused me to be erected in the year of our Lord Greater detail of the memorial is to found at pages to of Dedicated to Sligo, but the major credit goes to James M Conlon for telling us that the lower portion was at Braganstown.

    Photo: Martin A. Roisin mentioned it to her friend, Orna Owens, whose mother Elizabeth is the daughter of the JM Conlon we were looking for. She told her father and he rang us with great delight. James M Conlon turns out to be living in Ballydoogan on the west side of Sligo.

    With liberal editorial prompting, the article was just going over four pages and we met to cut some words and sentences, but not thoughts. I had noticed that Two Mile Hill, Calry, was the address of a subscriber to an earlier volume. Jim, who had spent much of his early life in the Calry area, explained that Two Mile Hill was in Ballyglass and that there was a milestone Fig 2 on the roadside, though it has been moved a little to where it is now set into a wall on the north side of the road. Milestones are an endangered species. Road widening means they get moved and road improvements means some get buried.

    Bridget Timoney in The stone is two miles from Sligo on what we now would consider to be Manorhamilton, Enniskillen and Belfast road, certainly not that towards Dublin. However, examining another Larkin map, that of Post Roads of Horner , Fig 24 , it is clear that this was indeed a road from Sligo to Dublin, going through Manorhamilton, Florence court , Belturbet and Cavan. Arnold Horner pers. The spacing confirms E F, for Ellen French, would be the correct reading. This local name, Two Mile Hill, has indirectly revealed a point I had missed out on completely when reading of travel writers record coming and going by this route, particularly the route taken by Beranger and Bigarri in coming to Sligo from Dublin, so eloquently detailed by Peter Harbison in Treasure of Antiquities and in Celebration of Sligo, both published in Marriage Stones One evening the two Timoneys were in Sligo Abbey checking some final details for the book.

    Mary B took to looking at some recumbent gravestones, as she is wont to do.