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Alphabet Squadron. Frankissstein A Love Story. Fall, Or Dodge In Hell. Guardian Of Empire Dragon Empire. Children of Ruin. Brave New World Vintage Classics. The Passengers. Lovecraft The Complete Fiction. The Great Zoo of China. Frankenstein : Popular Penguins Popular Penguins. Machines Like Me. Item Added: The Golden Circuit. View Wishlist. Wilson Albert and members of the Oklahoma Anthropological Society thoroughly documented the cemetery for inclusion on the National Register of Historic Places.

This article relates the results of that survey. Many music historians consider the concert in Atoka to be the beginning of outlaw country music movement popularized by Waylon Jennings and Willie Nelson. In her article, Cindy Donovan-Wallis describes the concert and the impact this concert had on the local Atoka community. Volume 90, No. Kroeker The Oklahoma Amish are the direct heirs of the Anabaptist religious tradition that began during the Protestant Reformation. Marvin E. Kroeker describes how these resilient people have maintained their lifestyle in Oklahoma through years of environmental and technological change.

Randolph Davis fought for equality for African American young people.

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Based on conversations with Davis, Gloria J. Pollard has written an insightful biography of this icon of equal education and civil rights. The route followed by Custer and his men in search of Cheyenne camps on the headwaters of the Red River has remained a mystery to this day.

Rod Beemer explores the written accounts of this campaign and provides prospective answers to this nearly year-old question. Darin Nelson recounts how the relationship between the public and private sectors, while not always harmonious, led to the creation of a recreational area to benefit the surrounding community. Edward Rolison In the early years of Oklahoma, the cattlemen and farmers of western Oklahoma battled over the laws that allowed stock to run free over the land. By examining the case of the murder of Julius Roesch, W.

Edward Rolison describes the attitudes of the time toward the debate over herd law versus free range. Kracht From to federal policies prohibited the practice of certain American Indian rituals and dances. Benjamin R. Kracht discusses the evolution of these dances from prohibited practices to tourist attractions. From cowboy songs to string bands, these musical expressions helped to shape a sense of pride in the traditions of Oklahoma people.

By the s and s this folk music was embodied in the coffeehouse movement. Rodger Harris and Baxter Taylor III describe the people and places involved in this continuation of the folk tradition. He entertained politicians, generals, and wealthy cattlemen at Star House. Larry C. Floyd explains the importance of this landmark to the Parker family and to southwestern history.

Von Russell Creel creates an election reference guide as he explores the election of Republican justices and judges at a time when Oklahoma was dominated by the Democratic Party. In part two of his study, Michael J. Father Stanley Rother exemplified this relief movement.

Pierson When Vilona P. Cutler was young, she thought she would become a renowned scientist. Instead, Cutler became a driving force in the movement to stop racism and sexism in Oklahoma. Gregory N. Hightower The repercussions of the rise and failure of Penn Square Bank still can be felt in the banking and oil industries today. In Part 1, Michael J. Hightower chronicles the rise of Penn Square Bank and explains how a small bank in Oklahoma City became a powerhouse in the oil banking community, which foreshadowed its demise.

Volume 89, No. Rhodes Oklahoma became the backdrop for many films during the early era of cinema. The films focused on the wild west aspects of the new state, including stories starring real life outlaws and lawmen. Gary D. Rhodes illuminates the early, largely unknown history of cinema in Oklahoma. Smith Across Oklahoma, ethnic communities grew as immigrants settled in the territory. These communities strove to maintain their identity while becoming active in the majority native-born society. Philip D. Smith explores the relationship between ethnicity and political power through the person of Frank Vlasak, a Bohemian-born farmer and businessman in early Prague, Oklahoma.

Cynthia Savage describes the process undertaken to bring the center to Platt National Park. In part two of a two-part article Richard Lowitt continues his examination of the effect that economic distress and political policies had on Oklahoma farmers and ranchers.

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Kruger Although not from the Sooner State, J. Penney made his mark on Oklahoma and its people through his retail empire based on his golden rule principles. By visiting his store locations in the state, Penney influenced a new generation of company leadership to grow from the small towns in Oklahoma.

David D. Kruger explains the impact of Penney the man and J. Penney the company on the culture of retail shopping in Oklahoma. Seals Nevergold Newspaper publisher A. Smitherman is best known for his role in the Tulsa Race Riot of But before that he used the power of the press to fight social injustice against African Americans, first in Muskogee and then in Tulsa.

Barbara A. Students were instructed in traditional school subjects as well as in agricultural and vocational training. Dennis Miles explores the evolution of the school under various superintendents from its opening in to its untimely closing in In part one of a two-part article Richard Lowitt examines the effect that economic distress and political policies had on Oklahoma farmers and ranchers. Vol 89, No.

Hardaway The cattle industry became a booming business in the nineteenth century. Many African Americans took advantage of this growth and became ranch hands and cowboys. Cowboys became performers on various ranches and then in rodeos, and Roger D. Hardaway shows how African American cowboys were a vital part of this transition.

Through letters to the editor, Richard Mize presents one story of intermarriage and identity in the Choctaw Nation. Murrah, Josh Lee, and Carl Albert. When he was seated on the federal bench in , he was known for his logic and administrative efficiency. Olympic team.

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Although he was Choctaw and Chickasaw, he did not grow up with a prominent American Indian identity and did not identify himself as such. Volume 88, No. Hightower Brothers F. Johnson came from Mississippi to Oklahoma looking for opportunity. They made names for themselves in their own banking ventures across the state before teaming up to create the First National Bank and Trust Company in Oklahoma City.

Michael Hightower explores their parallel paths in Oklahoma banking history. Michael Snyder analyzes this text to demonstrate its historical and biographical value as well as to show its relevance to understanding the Quaker influence that still exists in the Osage community. Richard Lowitt expounds on the reasons for the strike, the attention it received locally and nationally from African American politicians and organizations, and the results of the resolve of the strikers and their supporters.

Matthew Allen Pearce explores the circumstances surrounding the decision to move the elk to Oklahoma and the Progressive conservation ideals behind bringing the elk to Oklahoma. Levy Edwin DeBarr was one of the founding faculty members of the University of Oklahoma and made lasting contributions to the school. DeBarr also possessed some objectionable traits that would lead to two distinct falls, one of his careers at the university and one of his legacies at the university. Welch had a great amount of influence over the people to whom they preached. Although it was created for their specific needs, it had the potential to be converted into an acoustically-pleasing concert hall.

Jennifer Jones relates the story of the Knox Building from its origins to the rift that led to years of disrepair, ultimately leading to a restoration project that was truly a community effort. These rebellions, however, were portrayed differently by newspapers across the country and were remembered uniquely by the people who witnessed them. Leslie Jones compares newspapers in Oklahoma to newspapers nationwide to discover the impact of the Snake Rebellion. Vol 88, No. Stein, 4—23 Since the mid-nineteenth century cycles of boom and bust have characterized Oklahoma history.

The Cherokee Advocate struggled to inform readers about the benefits and perils of assigning land to individuals. Robert D. Angie Smith of The Methodist Church. Stewart, the minister who accused him of wrongdoing. Vol 87, No. Justin Castro, The Cherokee adopted the fiddle as their primary musical instrument early in the nineteenth century. They brought it to the Cherokee Nation of Indian Territory on the Trail of Tears and made it an important part of their culture. Justin Castro traces the history of fiddle playing among the Cherokee and illustrates the importance of that musical genre for the people.

Hightower, The Oklahoma land rushes brought thousands of settlers to central Oklahoma. Among them, Willard Johnston took his place as both homesteader and business promoter. Michael J. Inspired by other American Indian writers and poets, in the s he began to compose essays and verse to express his personal philosophy. By the s many cities and towns offered postsecondary education in municipal or state-supported junior colleges. Simpson details the effects of philosophical and political issues on the course of its history. An ambitious, opportunistic man in search of a presidential cabinet appointment, Hamon used money and influence to manipulate the selection of Warren G.

At the height of his career, Hamon lost his life when he was shot and killed by his long-time mistress three weeks after the election. Economist Matthew Gregg has performed a detailed mathematical analysis of land sale records in Tennessee, North Carolina, Alabama, and Georgia around the time of removal.

The festival owes its genesis to the dedication of a small cadre of local civic, arts, and political leaders who envisioned a multi-tribal exposition of American Indian dance, arts, and crafts. They calmed public fears of bank insolvency and developed ingenious ways to make currency flow in the economy. Emerging overnight in the center of the Healdton Field, Ragtown provided shelter and work for hundreds of assorted oil-field characters. Founded in for Seneca, Wyandot, and Quapaw children, by the s Seneca School served as a boarding facility for Cherokee youths.

Diane Miller summarizes the ways in which the nations of Indian Territory offered safe harbor for runaway slaves and other African Americans seeking freedom. Volume 86, No. Brad Agnew describes the process by which local citizens secured Northeastern State Normal School for their town.

Two dedicated employees of the IACB came to southeastern Oklahoma to carry out an ambitious project to increase the income of Choctaw women through traditional native craft. Justin Castro, — Music and religion have commonly been inseparable for Indian and white Oklahomans living on the fringe of the Ozarks in eastern Oklahoma.

Darcy, — During the territorial era the Legislative Assembly dealt with many matters relating to the lives and livelihoods of their constituents, some of whom were African Americans. Deputy Marshal Charles Wilson was murdered on election day. Jackson Crow, a non-Choctaw also accused of the crime, was convicted in federal court and executed in Within that stimulating milieu emerged William Cunningham.

Women, as well as men, participated in them. Examining the literature of and about the era, Douglas Werden shows that men who wrote about women land seekers often satirized and belittled them in order to discourage them from competing. Ponder revealed his World War I aviation exploits to his mother in a series of letters that were printed in the Mangum Star.

After transferring to the U. Newspaper reporters talked to hundreds of Oklahomans during that week, gauging their grief, their fears, and their hopes for the future. Kerri Shadid uses these newspaper interviews to analyze the reactions of black and white Oklahoma citizens to the death of the noted civil rights leader. Hightower, 4— C. Hightower, a native Georgian, brought his considerable entrepreneurial skills to the frontier in He was instrumental in the founding of Altus, in Old Greer County, at a time when its ownership was still disputed by Texas.

Hightower delineates C. In the second of a two-part article Richard Lowitt continues his evaluation of the problems of Indian health care and the campaign led by Senators Fred Harris and Dewey Bartlett to correct a record of neglect. Lisa Kraft explores the arrival of the Potawatomi in central Oklahoma, the acquisition of a new reservation, and the means used to force them to own land as individuals. Traveling the back roads of Oklahoma, they brought home economics education to thousands of rural African American women and their families.

Volume 85, No. Modern in every way, the building and its experimental curriculum implemented the ideals of the progressive education movement. Their observations of Old World customs and living conditions, coupled with the ravages of World War I, convinced many that the New World—America and Oklahoma—were superior in all respects. In this two-part article Richard Lowitt evaluates the problems of Indian health care and the campaign led by Senator Fred Harris and others to correct a record of neglect.

Christopher Haveman carefully outlines the travails of these first Creek emigrants, whose journey preceded removal of the Creek Nation. Agnew resigned in disgrace in Gerald R. Payne, — In the first half of the twentieth century North Canadian River floods devastated parts of Oklahoma City.

Two inundations in engendered a thirty-year struggle for federal funds to straighten and safely channel the river through the growing urban area. Designed and planned from to , the Oklahoma City Floodway was dedicated on March 31, Leahy, — When the Pawnee people were forced into Indian Territory in the mids, they had already begun to lose aspects of their culture. Major expositions in Oklahoma City and Tulsa were mirrored in events in many communities. After a lengthy campaign led by Governor Raymond D. Gary, Oklahomans adopted a constitutional amendment ending the time-honored special tax for separate schools, and the process of integration became reality.

Searching for the reasons for sluggish performance, Matthew McCoy examines the roles of negative self-image and political corruption in retarding progress. In Part 2 of the Civil Liberties story, the Oklahoma Senate Committee on Elections and Privileges turns its attention to a legislatively mandated investigation of alleged Communist activity in Oklahoma colleges and universities. Kilpatrick, inspired the creation of schools designed to focus on the child, on socialization, on practical subjects, and on problem solving.

At the University of Oklahoma in Ellsworth Collings founded University School, a junior high and later high school. For fifty-six years it was to be a nexus of experimentation, observation, and practice exemplifying the ideals of Progressive Education. Pressed by the need for cash to buy supplies, the Choctaw struggled to make the United States government live up to its treaty promises. As the bureaucratic process dragged on for decades, the project divided the community. Their proposals for land ownership, judicial administration, and representation in the United States Congress were summarily rejected by the members of the Dawes Commission during the —99 talks.

Wiegand, — The rise of Communism in Europe alarmed many Americans in the pre—World War II era, and the FBI investigated Oklahomans, including university professors and religious leaders, for suspected subversive activities. Determined to preserve and defend freedom of speech, a group of concerned citizens formed the Oklahoma Federation for Constitutional Rights and later faced investigation by the legislature. Verhalen, — In a cotton farmer discovered strange cotton plants growing in his field near Union City in Canadian County. The leaves were purple, and the bolls were set in clusters.

A talented amateur agronomist, J. The two journals campaigned against alcohol in the Choctaw Nation. Conservative students, faculty, university administrators, and even legislators attempted, unsuccessfully, to thwart the prospect of radical action, fearing that a Kent State—like incident might erupt.

The revamped campus now included barracks and military training facilities. Their stories involve the complicated legal processes of appeal, application for presidential clemency, commutation of sentence, and postverdict motions. Warren, — In the early s a lengthy series of murders occurred in Osage County. The victims, members of the Osage tribe, all held headrights that entitled them to oil royalties.

Department of Commerce. The bitter, protracted, and occasionally violent fight involved two years of investigations and negotiations. Their thirst for adventure led them to Louisiana and Japan before their unit, the th Infantry Regiment of the Forty-fifth Infantry Division, fought in Korea. Robinson, 78—99 In teacher and preacher Samuel Robert Cassius came to Oklahoma Territory, believing it to be a haven of freedom and opportunity for black people. Like his hero, Booker T. Washington, he established a school. Nature and human nature conspired against Cassius, and, beset by tragedy and betrayal, he left Oklahoma in disgust in Volume 83, No.

Richard Lowitt explores all sides of the controversy that developed when Fort Sill announced its plans to expand into the Wichita Mountains Wildlife Refuge and into thousands of acres under private ownership in Comanche County. Mullins, — After a measure of success as an oil promoter in California, C. Julian moved his operation to Oklahoma in shortly after the booming Oklahoma City field opened. William Mullins follows the trail of a flamboyant man who soon be came embroiled in the pro-ration controversy and more serious charges of reloading, mail and investor fraud, bankruptcy, and flight from justice.

Todd Leahy describes the efforts of agents and army officials to establish Indian-operated cattle ranching among the Kiowas and Comanches, who proved unwilling to give up certain aspects of their culture. In its early years, it evolved with the growing city as part of the back-to-nature movement.

Wilhite, — Over a period of about forty years in mid-twentieth century, student library clubs flourished across the United States. Jeffrey Wilhite pro vides a thorough discussion of the Oklahoma Student Librarians Association, as it brought recognition to students and libraries, provided training in the workings of a library, and promoted interest in the field of librarianship. However, three major developments threatened the very essence of Ponca life and tribalism. Mark van de Logt examines the effects of removal in , allotment in the s, and the development of the oil and gas industry on Ponca land in the twentieth century.

Youngblood and his partners, the lavish interiors, and the causes of its decline and eventual rehabilitation as an office building. Darcy, — Operating for a period of seventeen years, the Oklahoma territorial legislatures created the framework for much of the legal and administrative structure inherited by the state in Recognizing the lack of a comprehensive, accurate account of the legislators and their politics, R.

Darcy provides a meticulous documentation of the complex makeup of the assembles. Dastrup, — Fort Sill played a key role in the large mobilization of American military forces in — during Operations Desert Shield and Desert Storm. Post historian Boyd Dastrup explains how army officials and soldiers at all levels had to adjust rapidly and effectively to constantly changing circumstances and demands, while meeting daily operational requirements at the same time. Hurt, — In the nineteenth century Native Americans in the Indian Territory faced dispossession, forced re-settlement, and interference in tribal customs and politics.

Douglas Hurt explores the case of the Creek Nation as its members dealt with Anglo intrusion and colonization through resistance, modification, and development of a sense of place centered on community and ceremonies. Letha Caudle examines the founding of the institution, its leaders and teachers, and a curriculum that provided career development for hundreds of students. Scott, 4—33 Growing up on a dry-land farm in southwestern Oklahoma, young Fred Harris determined early on to escape and to make something of himself. That he has done in three successive careers—lawyer, politician, and professor.

Clampitt, 34—53 As the Civil War drew to a close, the Five Civilized Tribes, most of them allies of the Confederacy, realized that as a matter of self-preservation they had to negotiate separate surrender agreements and make peace with the several Plains tribes. Brad Clampitt provides a thorough discussion of their efforts undertaken during one of the largest intertribal gatherings in Indian Territory. John Steinbeck compiled material for his fictional portrayal of migrant farm workers during an assignment for a California newspaper.

Paul Bailey travels back in time to accompany the journalist as he created public awareness of a real crisis and found inspiration for his greatest literary work. Most studies of the party have focused on generalizations and state-level organization, but it was the local activists who gave the party its strength and changed the balance of power in Oklahoma politics through two difficult decades.

Using information found in socialist newspapers and the manuscript census, Jim Bissett uncovers the lives and experiences of local party members with a focus on Marshall and Roger Mills Counties. Although white officers filled the highest ranks of command, Cherokee officers and soldiers modified the military system to fit their own needs. Trevor Jones explores the ways in which Cherokees managed discipline in the Third Indian Home Guard to achieve their ultimate goal of sovereignty.

However, neither of them held a long-term association with an institution of higher learning. That distinction belongs to Dr. Anna Lewis, who enjoyed a long and stellar career at the Oklahoma College for Women but whose accomplishments have been overlooked. Robinson II, — Throughout much of its history, the state of Oklahoma enacted legislation that mandated some form of sexual separateness between the races.

However, interracial couples openly defied the law and officials spent little effort in enforcement. After providing an overview of antimiscegenation laws dating from the time of slavery into the statehood period, Charles Robinson examines the eleven cases that reached the highest state or the federal courts, most of them civil cases involving blacks and Indians. Bax, — Thousands of land seekers arrived in Guthrie on April 22, , among them Frank Housholder and his four-year-old son, Glen Dana.

Their efforts to find a homestead and make a living in the new land eventually resulted in the Housholder Fruit Farm, one of the largest fruit-growing businesses in the state. In truth, White Sut lived a full life of adventure and service to his family, his community, and the Cherokee Nation. Buhite, — In the mid-twentieth century, several individuals rose to prominence on the fringes of American political life through demagogic behavior or force of personality.

Gerald L. Smith became one of the best known, for the viciousness of his views, his bigotry, and his extremism. Hurley was the Republican candidate. Cynthia Savage explains the process of listing properties on the Register, then describes the history of an African-American community in Oklahoma as it established and exercised control over the one area of its life unaffected by segregation, the practice of religion.

American writers, artists, historians, and others have all warned about the dangers of industrial growth at the expense of nature. Using the oil field film, Tulsa, as an example, Peter C. Wetherilt Behrens, — Following the Civil War, the grasslands of the Cherokee Outlet provided a lush pasture for longhorns driven north from Texas to Kansas railheads. When the government later moved smaller tribes to the Outlet and provided for the leasing of their land, greedy entrepreneurs found ways to acquire the land to the detriment of the Indians.

The Sequoyah Statehood Convention garnered national attention, but historians generally have provided no detailed study of its work. Chongo Mundende, 4—31 Over many years, Oklahoma has experienced a wide variety of climate-related problems—bare soils and dust storms, uncontrolled runoff, soil erosion, and floods. From those harsh lessons of history, the federal and state governments, working in cooperation with the farmers and ranchers of Oklahoma, have instituted a number of practices designed to save the precious resources of soil and water. Isaac William Young, moved to Oklahoma to begin a new life.

After making numerous progressive contributions to the small all-black town of Boley, Young moved to Oklahoma City and eventually entered politics working the mayoral and gubernatorial campaigns of Democrat John C. Adkison, 64—81 As Oklahoma prepared for statehood in the early twentieth century, it seemed to adopt Nebraska politician William Jennings Bryan as one of its own, and historians have generally accepted that Bryan had a strong and direct influence on the state constitution.

In exploring the relationship between the two, Danny Adkison asks if Bryan served as Moses to lead Oklahoma to accept his favorite policies, or if Oklahoma used the eloquent Bryan as an Aaron to give voice to its own agenda. Nowhere was that more evident than in Payne County, where the Klan appeared parades, held grand initiations, and boasted a membership of 1, Keith Tolman provides a comprehensive account of steamboating on the Upper Red River, a sometimes temperamental stream that was closed for decades by the Great Raft, but that nonetheless bound together diverse peoples, cultures, and economies.

Sweeney, — For many home seekers, the late-season date for the opening of the Cherokee Outlet in coincided with a major drought on the Southern Plains. Moreover, other environmental and economic factors contributed to their success or failure. Kevin Sweeney focuses on the difficulties settlers faced and how they coped with adverse conditions in the various sections of the Outlet. Andrew Denson reconstructs the efforts of the Indian Peace Commission to find an alternative Indian affairs in a semi-independent, multi-tribal confederation.

Earl Newsom, — Founded near the turn of the twentieth century, Mehan remained a small, quiet village until an oil boom brought an influx of people to Payne County in the s. Volume 81, No. However, non-textual and non-artifactual materials also may contribute to the analysis.

Comparing the paintings of George Catlin to objects recovered from several sites, Cinnamon Catlin-Legutko seeks answers to questions regarding gender and acculturation among American Indians during the removal period. In the benchmark case of Will Johnson, a black man executed in for the murder of a white woman, Thomas Hedglen explores how well justice and the highest ideals of society were served.

Van Hoak, — Some historians have asserted that, in the years after contact, Choctaws became increasingly dependent upon Euro-Americans. Stephen Van Hoak closely examines the speeches of Choctaw leaders in the post-contact era to show that the Choctaws used a diplomatic language that was rhetorical rather than reflective of their actual condition. Vickery, — Marquis James grew up in and around Enid, moved out into the world as a tramp reporter, and eventually found his calling writing historical biographies.

Paul Vickery provides a fascinating account of a man who found his muse in the Cherokee Strip and produced a body of work that garnered him worldwide acclaim and two Pulitzer Prizes. Melanie Rich recounts the activities of Oklahoma women, often outside the domestic sphere, and the sacrifices they made to win a world war. Susan Booker examines a variety of historical records to discover the types of structures Oklahomans built, the kinds of entertainment they enjoyed, and how these activities help spread popular culture to the hinterland.

To induce the Indians to give up practices such as the Sun Dance and polygamy, the agents asked for help from the missionary field. Mark van deLogt focuses on the work of the Methodist Episcopal Church on the Ponca Agency, the methods the missionaries used, and the reasons for their ultimate failure in transforming the Poncas.

Von Creel traces the evolution of the United States Court for the Indian Territory and its several districts, details the capital cases of the nine men and one woman who came before it, and provided biographical information about the presiding judges. Harrah became the oldest and largest Polish settlement in the state when Poles began moving to the area following the land opening of ; most of them came to the United States in the s and moved to Harrah from other states.

Agnieszka Kemerley explores the political and economic hardships that forced many Poles to leave their native land, the hardships they faced in their new homes, and their efforts to preserve their heritage and culture for future generations. Culver of Tahlequah, Oklahoma, joined the Scouts and Raiders, a joint army-navy unit whose members were trained to direct amphibious assaults. English, 34—53 James J. McAlester carved out a prominent niche for himself in the Choctaw Nation in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries as a successful captain of commerce. To learn more about the society in which he lived and worked, Linda English delves into the records of his general store, an invaluable resource for historians of the Indian Territory frontier.

George Wright was a key figure in implementing controversial federal policies relating to the Five Civilized Tribes during the allotment era, but his career has received scant scholarly attention. Kent Carter remedies that oversight with a careful study of one of the few men to emerge from that turbulent period with his reputation intact. Collins, 80— The publication of the novel, The Grapes of Wrath, contributed to a long-standing, widely-held negative stereotype of the state of Oklahoma and its people.

Jennifer Collins examines the several efforts of government officials and civic and business leaders to change the way Oklahomans were perceived nationally and the way Oklahomans viewed themselves. Rutherford B. Hayes knew little about the forced relocation of the Indian tribes in the United States, but with new knowledge gained from the plight of the Poncas, Hayes ended the policy of removal before leaving office.

Volume 80, No. Culver made a transition that required all the physical and intellectual stamina he could muster. He then seemed to disappear, much to the frustration of state historians. Duren, — The meteoric rise and downfall of Oklahoma governor John C. Brad Duren provides a fascinating accounts of a man who was controversial from the start and whose despotic nature and clashes with the Ku Klux Klan led Duncan legislator W.

Joe D. Haines explores the career of the Wild Horse of the Osage during and beyond his years with the St. Louis Cardinals. As a result, Henry Post Field played a key role in the early development of army aviation. Stacy Reaves recounts the history of the men and the machines that were critical components of the aviation section working in conjunction with the field artillery. Smitherman, publisher of the Tulsa Star, to educate members of his race about their responsibility to protect themselves from lynchings and mob violence—advice that would have dire consequences in May, Duffield, — The story of the forced removal of the Cherokees from the southeastern United States is widely known, but details of the ordeal are still unfolding.

The removal itself and the intervening years have produced a plethora of documents and histories. Hancock, — Between and the mids, the University of Oklahoma provided language, technical, and cultural training for 1, Peace Corps volunteers for overseas duty. In that vein, voters began to elect an increasing number of younger, progressive men to national office. Philip Grant analyzes and describes the U. Lockwood, — The facts about the origin and paternity of John Martin, the first chief justice of the first supreme court of the Cherokee Nation in Indian Territory, have been distorted or lost over the years.

Patricia Lockwood, a descendant of John Martin, clears the record through discovery and investigation of centuries-old records that shed light on his ancestry and early life in the Cherokee Nation East. Joe Cassity traces the historical development and shifting sands of Oklahoma radicalism through the life and career of Orville Enfield of Ellis County. Louis Coleman acknowledges that Oklahombi may have been a hero, but military records on two continents show that the soldier received only the Silver Star Citation and the French croix de guerre.

Richard Lowitt explores how panhandle residents coped with the crises, how they used available resources, and what they learned about land use in the effort to restore a profitable economy. Using Stillwater, Oklahoma, as a case study, Deborah Carmichael provides a careful analysis of the local theater businesses and how they grew from small beginnings and large dreams to corporate mergers and takeovers. James McCullagh shows that through education and career choice Walkingstick dedicated herself to helping Indian families and children, her community, and her church. Volume 79, No.

When Denzil Garrison returned home two years later, he had amassed a sobering collection of memories of a conflict with an implacable enemy on unforgiving terrain. Garrison recalls those poignant experiences, albeit some of them humorous, and the valiant men with whom he served. Her hometown drew her back, however, and she began a long career as instructor of English and journalism and dean of Muskogee Junior College. Using tributes from former students, Dana Eversole salutes a dedicated teacher who always put them first. Davis, — In L. Davis moved his family to Francis, Oklahoma, to take a job with the railroad.

Combining that sometimes dangerous assignment, especially during the strikes of , with his work as a minister and farmer, Davis became a leader in the community and a man seemingly afraid of nothing. Allen Finchum, — In the early twentieth century, Andrew Carnegie funded the construction of twenty-four libraries in Oklahoma, providing places for residents to learn, to read, and to be entertained.

However, the contributions of Oklahoma-born women in American popular music have often been overlooked. George Carney rectifies that in an interesting demographic profile of twenty-four Oklahoma women artists. In a time of great change, Howard Meredith shows, the people and their leaders conserved and revived the best elements of their culture through tribal tradition and solidarity.

Brooks, — Archeologists frequently find and study artifacts that reveal hunting and farming practices, household work, and economic activities, but the record provides few studies relating to recreational and leisure activities. Robert Brooks analyzed a collection of bisque dolls from the abandoned town of Ingersoll and provides insight into their use in the early statehood period. Blaisdell, — In August, , a black man named John Lee attacked and killed a woman alone with her children on their farm north of Durant.

A large crowd tracked down and shot Lee, then burned his body. Amid much controversy, John Adair Bell and the Treaty Party also won the right to conduct their own emigration. Wayne Gibson reconstructs their journey using the records o the disbursing officer, Lt. Edward Deas. Theodore Vestal provides a fascinating study of the times, the visit, and the man. Vance Haynes, — For more than a century, scholars, Native Americans, and an interested public have both studied and commemorated events that took place on the Washita River on a fateful day in At the heart of the story was an unlikely revolutionary, a Creek woman called Ellen Perryman.

Thomas Britten explores the prevailing stereotypes and the wartime hysteria that precipitated a nationwide investigation into a seemingly benign protest. The Oklahoma City municipal airport that became Will Rogers Field in the s also eventually provided a base to train aircrews in advance aerial bombardment and photographic reconnaissance. Keith Tolman examines the efforts of local and military officials to develop and operate the base. Over his lifetime, his experiences and interests ranged from mining and ranching to slaughter houses and banking. However, as Bonnie Haas and Joyce Bender show, his most enduring legacy is the Drumm Institute in Missouri, a home for indigent and orphaned youth.

Communities and health professionals battled a contagion against which normal public health measures proved futile. Fritz, 62—91 The effort to remove the Five Tribes from the southeastern United States in the early nineteenth century provided a great deal of discussion on both sides of the issue.

Schlup, 92— During a political career in which he served as delegate to Congress from Oklahoma Territory, Dennis T. Flynn established a close friendship with William Howard Taft both before and after his presidency. Matthew S.